Classroom observations of a cross-age peer tutoring mathematics program in elementary and middle schools

Elba Barahona 1, Yolanda N. Padrón 2 * , Hersh C. Waxman 2
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1 Department of Teacher Education and Administration, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA
2 School of Education and Human Development, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
* Corresponding Author
EUR J SCI MATH ED, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp. 515-532.
Published Online: 23 February 2023, Published: 01 July 2023
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A growing body of research has shown the positive effects of peer tutoring on students’ academic achievement, self-concept, attitude, social, and behavioral outcomes. There is, however, a paucity of research that focuses on peer-tutoring interventions for Hispanic students. The current study examined classroom practices, as well as program teachers’ and students’ behaviors within a cross-age peer-tutoring program implemented in elementary and middle schools that serve predominantly Hispanic students. Classroom observations were used to investigate the implementation of the peer-tutoring program. The results indicated that the program’s strengths included the development of positive emotions and relationships among students and a classroom environment that fostered warm and supportive relationships. The findings also indicated several weaknesses in the implementation of the program. Practitioners can use the findings to improve the effectiveness of future peer-tutoring programs in mathematics.


Barahona, E., Padrón, Y. N., & Waxman, H. C. (2023). Classroom observations of a cross-age peer tutoring mathematics program in elementary and middle schools. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 11(3), 515-532.


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