Development of a Test Instrument to Investigate Secondary School Students’ Declarative Knowledge of Quantum Optics

Philipp Bitzenbauer 1 *
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1 Physics Education Research, Department of Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, GERMANY
* Corresponding Author
EUR J SCI MATH ED, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp. 57-79.
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This article reports the development and validation of a test instrument to assess secondary school students’ declarative quantum optics knowledge. With that, we respond to modern developments from physics education research: Numerous researchers propose quantum optics-based introductory courses in quantum physics, focusing on experiments with heralded photons. Our test instrument’s development is based on test development standards from the literature, and we follow a contemporary conception of validity. We present results from three studies to test various assumptions that, taken together, justify a valid test score interpretation, and we provide a psychometric characterization of the instrument. The instrument is shown to enable a reliable (α = 0.78) and valid survey of declarative knowledge of quantum optics focusing on experiments with heralded photons with three empirically separable subscales.


Bitzenbauer, P. (2021). Development of a Test Instrument to Investigate Secondary School Students’ Declarative Knowledge of Quantum Optics. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9(3), 57-79.


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