HOTS in Quadratic Equations: Teaching Style Preferences and Challenges Faced by Malaysian Teachers

Richeal Phil Thien Kim How 1 * , Hutkemri Zulnaidi 1, Suzieleez Syrene Abdul Rahim 1
More Detail
1 University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
* Corresponding Author
EUR J SCI MATH ED, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp. 15-33. https://doi.org/10.30935/scimath/11382
OPEN ACCESS   523 Views   641 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to identify the teaching styles and problems faced by teachers as they attempt to cultivate higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) in the topic of quadratic equations. This study used a qualitative approach via structured interview involving four participants who are experienced mathematics teachers from three districts in Malaysia. Data obtained were analysed using the ATLAS.ti 8 software by dividing the transcripts into small codes based on thematic analysis. The results revealed that Malaysian teachers have limited and general understanding about higher-order thinking skills for the topic of quadratic equations. The interview results also found that existing teaching styles mainly involve teacher-centred strategies that emphasise on the memorisation of procedures or facts as well as steps to solve quadratic equation problems. Among the challenges faced by teachers were stated as students’ acceptance, lack of teaching aids, teaching strategies in the classroom, and students’ thinking skills. The findings of this study can help to refine and improve several shortcomings and weak students can be exposed to the learning of higher-order thinking skills in quadratic equations via real-life projects. It is proposed for future research to focus on integrating digital literacy, such as Desmos Graphing Calculator, in cultivating higher-order thinking skills for quadratic equations.

CITATION

Kim How, R. P. T., Zulnaidi, H., & Abdul Rahim, S. S. (2022). HOTS in Quadratic Equations: Teaching Style Preferences and Challenges Faced by Malaysian Teachers. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 10(1), 15-33. https://doi.org/10.30935/scimath/11382

REFERENCES

  • Aling, M., & Maat, S. M. (2021). Tahap penerapan dan kefahaman guru matematik terhadap kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi (KBAT) dalam PDP matematik di sekolah rendah [Level of application and understanding of mathematics teachers on higher order thinking skills (HLTS) in PDP mathematics in primary schools]. Jurnal Dunia Pendidikan, 3(1), 331-341. https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/jdpd/article/view/12587
  • Al-Kindi, N. S., & AL-Mekhlafi, A. M. (2017). The practice and challenges of implementing critical thinking skills in Omani post-basic EFL classrooms. English Language Teaching, 10(12), 116-133. http://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n12p116
  • Aripin, N., Mustafa, H., & Hussein, A. (2014). Hubungan kedinamikan dalaman dengan keberkesanan pasukan maya: Satu tinjauan di organisasi bertaraf Koridor Raya Multimedia (MSC) yang terpilih [The relationship of internal dynamics with virtual team effectiveness: A survey in selected Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) -ranked organizations]. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 30, 191-218. https://doi.org/10.17576/JKMJC-2014-30SI-12
  • Bogdan, R., & Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods (5th ed.). Pearson A & B.
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
  • Cahyani, L., & Rahaju, E. B. (2019). Students’ reflective abstraction of middle school in reconstructing quadratic equation concept based on high mathematical ability. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1417(1), 012044. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1417/1/012044
  • Chun, T. C., & Abdullah, M. N. L. Y. B. (2019). The teaching of higher order thinking skills (HOTS) in Malaysian schools: Policy and practices. MOJEM: Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Management, 7(3), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.22452/mojem.vol7no3.1
  • Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative (4th ed.). Pearson.
  • Curriculum Development Division. (2018). KSSM Dokumen Standard Kurikulum dan Pentaksiran Tingkatan 4 dan 5: Matematik [KSSM Form 4 and 5 Curriculum and Assessment Standard Document: Mathematics]. Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.
  • Didis, M. G., & Erbas, A. K. (2015). Performance and difficulties of students in formulating and solving quadratic equations with one unknown. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 15(4), 1137-1150. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2015.4.2743
  • Friyatmi, M. (2020). Assessing students’ higher order thinking skills using multidimensional item response theory. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 78(2), 196-214. https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/20.78.196
  • Gani, M. F. R. (2018). Keberkesanan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi pelajar dalam matematik melalui kaedah pembelajaran luar bilik darjah [The effectiveness of students ‘high -level thinking skills in mathematics through extracurricular learning methods]. Journal of Advanced Research in Social and Behavioural Sciences, 10(1), 80-90. https://www.akademiabaru.com/doc/ARSBSV10_N1_P80_90.pdf
  • Ghazali, N. H. C. M. (2017). The implementation of School-Based Assessment System in Malaysia: A study of teacher perceptions. Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 12(9), 104-117. https://ejournal.ukm.my/gmjss/article/view/17734/0
  • Güner, P. (2017). High school students’ achievement of solving quadratic equations. Bartin University Journal of Faculty of Education, 6(2), 447-467. https://doi.org/10.14686/buefad.277494
  • Hadi, S., Retnawati, H., Munadi, S., Apino, E., & Wulandari, N. F. (2018). The difficulties of high school students in solving higher-order thinking skills problems. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 76(4), 520. https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/18.76.520
  • Hasan, A., & Pardjono, P. (2019). The correlation of higher order thinking skills and work readiness of vocational high school students. Jurnal Pendidikan Teknologi dan Kejuruan, 25(1), 52-61. https://doi.org/10.21831/jptk.v25i1.19118
  • Hasan, B. (2019). The exploration of higher order thinking skills: students’ difficulties and scaffolding in solving mathematical problems based on PISA. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1200, 012010. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1200/1/012010
  • Hassan, M. N., Mustapha, R., Yusuff, N. A. N., & Mansor, R. (2017). Pembangunan modul kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi di dalam mata pelajaran sains sekolah rendah: analisis keperluan guru [Development of high -level thinking skills modules in primary school science subjects: an analysis of teacher needs]. Sains Humanika, 9(1-5), 119-125. https://doi.org/10.11113/sh.v9n1-5.1185
  • Irma-Ain, M. M. S., & Zolkepeli, H. (2017). Kesediaan guru mengimplementasikan KBAT dalam pembelajaran dan pengajaran matematik sekolah rendah [Readiness of teachers to implement HOTS in primary school mathematics learning and teaching]. Jurnal Penyelidikan Pendidikan, 18, 147-159. https://anyflip.com/dixme/iaeh/basic/301-350
  • Johari, K., Ismail, Z., Osman, S., & Othman, A. T. (2009). Pengaruh jenis latihan guru dan pengalaman mengajar terhadap efikasi guru sekolah menengah [The influence of teacher training types and teaching experience on the effectiveness of secondary school teachers]. Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia (Malaysian Journal of Education), 34(2), 3-14. http://www.ukm.edu.my/jurfpend/journal/vol%2034_2%202009/pdf/Bab%201.pdf
  • Jubri, N. Z. M., Zakaria, E., & Matore, M. E. M. (2019). Penggunaan teknik jubin algebra dalam penguasaan kemahiran pendaraban ungkapan algebra bagi pelajar Tingkatan 2 [The use of algebraic tile techniques in the mastery of algebraic expression multiplication skills for Form 2 students]. Jurnal Dunia Pendidikan, 1(3), 74-88. https://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/jdpd/article/view/8314
  • Katz, V., & Barton, B. (2007). Stages in the history of algebra with implications for teaching. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 66, 185-201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-006-9023-7
  • Kotsopoulos, D. (2007). Unravelling student challenges with quadratics: A cognitive approach. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 63(2), 19-24. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ769977.pdf
  • Li, L., Zeng, X., Yang, R., & Wang, H. (2018). Mathematics teaching methods in high school. International Journal of Innovation and Research in Educational Sciences, 5(3), 354-356. http://www.ijires.org/administrator/components/com_jresearch/files/publications/IJIRES_1303_FINAL.pdf
  • Mahendran, K., Adenan, N. H., Abd Karim, N. S., Adawiyah, R., & Junus, N. W. M. (2021). Analisis tahap Pengetahuan Pedagogi Kandungan (PCK) guru pelatih matematik [Analysis of the content pedagogical knowledge (PCK) stage for mathematics trainers]. Jurnal Pendidikan Bitara UPSI, 14, 72-81. https://doi.org/10.37134/bitara.vol14.sp.8.2021
  • Majid, M. A. A., Othman, M., Mohamad, S. F., Lim, S. A. H., & Yusof, A. (2017). Piloting for interviews in qualitative research: Operationalization and lessons learnt. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(4), 1073-1080. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i4/2916
  • Marzni, M. M., Rohizani, Y., Fadzilah A., Roselan B., & Abdul R. J. (2018). Penggunaan teknologi mudah alih: Peralihan tumpuan untuk membudayakan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi dalam sistem Pendidikan Bahasa Melayu [Use of mobile technology: A shift in focus to cultivate high -level thinking skills in the Malay Language Education system]. International Journal of Education and Training (InjET), 4(2), 1-9. http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/54292/
  • McCarthy, J. (2020). Solving quadratic equations activity & revisions. Ohio Journal of School Mathematics, 84(1), 71-89. https://library.osu.edu/ojs/index.php/OJSM/article/view/6997
  • Misrom, N. B., Muhammad, A., Abdullah, A., Osman, S., Hamzah, M., & Fauzan, A. (2020). Enhancing students’ higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) through an inductive reasoning strategy using geogebra. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 15(3), 156-179. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i03.9839
  • Nasir, C. M. N & Hamid, N. A. (2017). Eksplorasi penggunaan ketum dalam kalangan belia di Negeri Kedah [Exploration of ketum use among youth in Kedah]. Jurnal Pembangunan Sosial, 20, 1-14. http://doi.org/10.32890/jps.20.2017.11549
  • Norton, S. (2015). Teaching and learning fundamental mathematics: Quadratic equations. Producer Freddy Komp.
  • Nurlaily, V. A., Sholihah, H. I. A., Wulandari, R. A., & Sa’diyah, A. (2021, March). The development of HOTS-dased mathematics teaching materials in elementary school. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1842(1), 012042. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1842/1/012042
  • O’Connor, B. R., & Norton, S. (2016). Investigating students’ mathematical difficulties with quadratic equations. In B. White, M’ Chinnappan, & S. Trenholm (Eds.), Opening up mathematics education research, Proceedings of the 39th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia [MERGA] (pp. 552-559). MERGA.
  • Rashidi, M. N., Begum, R. A., Mokhtar, M., & Pereira, J. J. (2014). The conduct of structured interviews as research implementation method. Journal of Advanced Research Design, 1(1), 28-34. http://www.myjurnal.my/public/article-download.php?id=102628
  • Rosli, R. A., & Rasdi, N. (2015). Analisis kesilapan pemfaktoran ungkapan kuadratik dalam kalangan pelajar Semester Satu di Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah [Analysis of quadratic expression factorization errors among Semester One students at Sultan Idris Shah Polytechnic]. In 1st National Conference on Business and Innovation 2015 (pp. 599-609). Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah.
  • Sağlam, R., & Alacacı, C. (2012). A comparative analysis of quadratics unit in Singaporean, Turkish and IMDP mathematics textbooks. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education, 3(3), 131-147. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/201331
  • Sari, I. F. D. P., & Jailani, J. (2019). Error analysis for grade IX students in completing the materials of quadratic equation. Annals of Mathematical Modeling, 1(2), 64-80. https://doi.org/10.33292/amm.v1i2.38
  • Spencer, L. M., & Spencer, P. S. M. (1993). Competence at Work models for superior performance. Wiley India Pvt.
  • Suanto, E., Zakaria, E., & Maat, S. M. (2019). Impak pendekatan pembelajaran pengalaman terhadap kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi topik bongkah geometri tiga dimensi [Impact of experiential learning approach on higher order thinking skills topic of three dimensional geometric blocks]. Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia (Malaysian Journal of Education), 44(1SI), 121-135. https://doi.org/10.17576/JPEN-2019-44.01SI-10
  • Talib, O. (2019). Analisis data kualitatif dengan ATLAS.ti 8. UPM Publication.
  • Tall, D., de Lima, R. N., & Healy, L. (2014). Evolving a three-world framework for solving algebraic equations in the light of what a student has met before. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 34, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmathb.2013.12.003
  • Tanujaya, B., Mumu, J., & Margono, G. (2017). The relationship between higher order thinking skills and academic performance of student in mathematics instruction. International Education Studies, 10(11), 78-85. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v10n11p78
  • Teh, A. H. (2015). Kaedah Pemfaktoran Ajaib Ungkapan Kuadratik (P.A.U.K) [Magic Factorization Method of Quadratic Expressions (P.A.U.K)]. Jurnal Pendidikan Kent, 14, 122-131. http://ipkent.edu.my/document/pskent/pskent18/jurnal/142015/9.pdf
  • Tendere, J., & Mutambara, L. H. N. (2020). An analysis of errors and misconceptions in the study of quadratic equations. European Journal of Mathematics and Science Education, 1(2), 81-90. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmse.1.2.81
  • Waller, P. P., & Flood, C. T. (2016). Mathematics as a universal language: transcending cultural lines. Journal for Multicultural Education, 10, 294-306. https://doi.org/10.1108/JME-01-2016-0004
  • Wilson, D. M., & Narasuman, S. (2020). Investigating teachers’ implementation and strategies on higher order thinking skills in school based assessment instruments. Asian Journal of University Education, 16(1), 70-84. https://doi.org/10.24191/ajue.v16i1.8991
  • Yeow P. C., Thavamani, R., Kamalah, R., Wong J. W., & Santhanasamy V. D. (2019). Buku Teks Matematik Tingkatan Empat. Penerbit Pustaka Yakin.
  • Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research design and methods (5th ed.). Sage.
  • Zakaria, E., Ibrahim, & Maat, S. (2010). Analysis of students’ error in learning of quadratic equations. International Education Studies, 3(3), 105-110. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v3n3p105
  • Zulkifli, F., Abidin, R. Z., Mansor, Z., Hamzah, M. H. M., & Zulkipli, F. (2018). Penggunaan alat bantuan belajar bagi meningkatkan kemampuan berfikir pelajar. Jurnal Inovasi Malaysia, 1(2), 1-22. https://ir.uitm.edu.my/id/eprint/23736/
  • Zulnaidi, H. (2013). Pembangunan dan keberkesanan modul pengajaran geogebra ke atas pengetahuan konseptual dan prosedural matematik fungsi dan had fungsi [Development and effectiveness of geogebra teaching modules on conceptual and procedural knowledge of functional mathematics and functional limits] [Doctoral thesis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia].