Scaffolding Strategies in Promoting Attitudes of Saudi Middle School Science Students

Khaled Saleh Alrawili 1, Kamisah Osman 2 * , Saeed Saleh Almuntasheri 3
More Detail
1 Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, MALAYSIA
2 Center for Teaching and Learning Innovation Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, MALAYSIA
3 Faculty of Education Albaha University, SAUDI ARABIA
* Corresponding Author
EUR J SCI MATH ED, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp. 71-86.
Published: 26 November 2021
OPEN ACCESS   1959 Views   1078 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)


Developing teaching strategies has become the cornerstone of education. The most successful educational strategies are those that adhere to their vital role to students as they focus on raising the students’ attitude towards learning. This research shed some light on the impact of scaffolding strategies on middle school students’ attitudes towards the science subject. Specifically, the aim of this research is twofold: to examine students’ attitudes towards learning and enjoying science and to emphasise their attitudes towards science teachers and their teaching methods in the classroom. A quasi-experimental research design was implemented to achieve the research objectives involving pre- and post-test for the experimental and control groups. The research population consisted of 84 ninth-grader science students in Saudi. A questionnaire of 24 items was developed to cover the major dimensions of the study after being validated by relevant experts. After conducting the questionnaire, data were collected accordingly and then analysed using descriptive analysis and inferential statistics. Findings showed a significant difference in the science student’s attitude in favour of students who were taught using scaffolding strategies compared with those taught using conventional teaching methods. Based on the findings, the research proposes that scaffolding strategies should be applied as educational venues of learning autonomy to students in classrooms that directly and indirectly promote students’ positive attitudes towards learning science. The research concluded with a recommendation that scaffolding strategies should be applied when teaching science for better outputs. Therefore, policymakers and curriculum planners need to adopt scaffolding as a typical teaching strategy for the art of teaching in general and science in particular.


Saleh Alrawili, K., Osman, K., & Saleh Almuntasheri, S. (2022). Scaffolding Strategies in Promoting Attitudes of Saudi Middle School Science Students. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 10(1), 71-86.


  • Adodo, S. O., & Gbore, L. O. (2012). Prediction of attitude and interest of science students of different ability on their academic performance in basic science. International Journal of Psychology and Counselling, 4(6), 68-72.
  • Agu, P. A., & Iyamu, C. O. (2020). Effect of metacognitive scaffolding teaching strategy on secondary school physics students’ achievement and attitude to thermal energy. International Journal of Scientific Advances, 1(2), 100-104.
  • Ahmad, N., Shaheen, N., & Gohar, S. (2018). 5E instructional model: Enhancing students academic achievement in the subject of general science at primary level. Sir Syed Journal of Education & Social Research, 1(1), 90-100.
  • Alharbi, H. H. (2015). Internal and external efficiency of the Saudi education system. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 8(1), 91-98.
  • Almazroa, H., & Al-Shamrani, S. (2015). Saudi science teacher professional development: Trends, practices and future directions. In Science education in the arab gulf states (pp. 1-21). Brill Sense.
  • Almuntasheri, S., Gillies, R. M., & Wright, T. (2016). The effectiveness of a guided inquiry-based, teachers’ professional development programme on Saudi students’ understanding of density. Science Education International, 27(1), 16-39.
  • Alrwathi, E., Almazroa, H., Alahmed, N., Scantbly, C., & Alshaye, F. (2014). Exploring curriculum implementation: Focus on science teaching [Paper presentation]. 2nd IHPST Asian Regional Conference. Taipei, Taiwan, 4-7.
  • Al-Shargi, M. R. (1987). Saudi and non-Saudi Arab male students’ attitudes toward science and science achievement in secondary schools [Doctoral dissertation, Oregon State University]. Corvallis.
  • Altiparmak, T., & Eryilmaz-Muştu, O. (2021). The effects of SCAMPER technique activities in the 8th grade simple machines unit on students’ academic achievement, motivation and attitude towards science lessons. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 7(1), 155-170.
  • Annisa, A., & Sutapa, P. (2019). Scaffolding strategies to increase children science interest. International Conference on Special and Inclusive Education (ICSIE 2018), 296, 279-284.
  • Artino, A. R. (2012). Academic self-efficacy: From educational theory to instructional practice. Perspectives on Medical Education, 1, 76-85.
  • Asiri, A. A. M. (2018). Attitudes of secondary school students in Saudi Arabia towards science. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, 6(3), 30-36.
  • Azevedo, F. S. (2018). An inquiry into the structure of situational interests. Science Education, 102(1), 108-127.
  • Azevedo, R., & Hadwin, A. F. (2005). Scaffolding self-regulated learning and metacognition – Implications for the design of computer-based scaffolds. Instructional Science, 33(5-6), 367-379.
  • Barak, M., & Dori, Y. J. (2009). Enhancing higher order thinking skills among inservice science teachers via embedded assessment. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 20(5), 459-474.
  • Bybee, R. (1997). Achieving scientific literacy: From purposes to practices. Heinemann Publications.
  • Bybee, R. W., & Landes, N. M. (1990). Science for life & living: An elementary school science program from biological sciences curriculum study. The American Biology Teacher, 52(2), 92-98.
  • Carin, A. A., Bass, J. E., & Contant, T. L. (2005). Teaching science as inquiry. Prentice Hall.
  • Casem, R. Q., & Alicia, F. O. (2013). Scaffolding strategy in teaching mathematics: Its effects on students’ performance and attitudes. Comprehensive Journal of Educational Research, 1(1), 9-19.
  • Cermik, H., & Fenli-Aktan, A. (2020). Primary school students’ attitudes towards science. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 6(2), 355-365.
  • Chang, J. Y. T., Wang, E. T. G., & Chao, R.-M. (2009). Using constructivism and scaffolding theories to explore learning style and effect in blog system environment. MIS REVIEW: An International Journal, 15(1), 29-61.
  • Cheng, K., & Tsai, C. (2020). Students’ motivational beliefs and strategies, perceived immersion and attitudes towards science learning with immersive virtual reality: A partial least squares analysis. British Journal of Educational Technology, 0(0), 1-20.
  • Chitman-Booker, L., & Kopp, K. (2013). The 5Es of inquiry-based science. Teacher Created Materials.
  • Darling-Hammond, L., Flook, L., Cook-Harvey, C., Barron, B., & Osher, D. (2020). Implications for educational practice of the science of learning and development. Applied Developmental Science, 24(2), 97-140.
  • DeCoster, J. (2006). Testing group differences using t-tests, ANOVA, and nonparametric measures. 2006-01-11.pdf
  • Derez, R. L. (2021). Building the interest of grade three pupils in science subject through HOOD collaborative approach (Helping others observe and discover). International Journal of Research in Engineering, Science and Management, 4(6), 284-286.
  • Dorn, L. J., & Soffos, C. (2001). Scaffolding young writers: A writer’s workshop approach. Stenhouse Publishers.
  • Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (1996). How to design and evaluate research (3rd ed). McGraw-Hill.
  • Fraser, B. J. (1981). Test of science-related attitudes (TOSRA). Australian Council for Educational Research.
  • George, R. (2006). A cross‐domain analysis of change in students’ attitudes toward science and attitudes about the utility of science. International Journal of Science Education, 28(6), 571-589.
  • Grewal, A. (1990). Scientific Attitude Scale (SAS). National Psychological Corporation Agra.
  • Hausfather, S. (2001). Where’s the content ? The role of content in constructivist teacher education. Horizons, 80(1), 15-19.
  • Ibritam, K. S., Udofia, N.-A., & Onweh, V. E. (2015). Assessing the potency of scaffolding and demonstration instruction methods on student’s achievement in technical colleges in Akwa Ibom State. Advances in Research, 3(1), 92-101.
  • Jorde, D., & Dillon, J. (2012). Science education research and practice in Europe: retrospective and prospective. In Science education research and practice in Europe (pp. 1-11). Brill Sense.
  • Kim, P., Suh, E., & Song, D. (2015). Development of a design-based learning curriculum through design-based research for a technology-enabled science classroom. Educational Technology Research and Development, 63(4), 575-602.
  • King, F. J., Goodson, L., & Rohani, F. (2013). Higher order thinking skills: Definition, teaching strategies, assessment. Center for Advancement of Learning and Assessment.
  • Kiong, P. L. N., & Yong, H. T. (2001). Scaffolding as a teaching strategy to enhance mathematics learning in the classroom. In Proceeding of the 2001 Research Seminar in Science and Mathematics Education.
  • Lajoie, S. P. (2014). Multimedia learning of cognitive processes. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (pp. 623-646). Cambridge University Press.
  • Lajoie, Susanne P. (2005). Extending the scaffolding metaphor. Instructional Science, 33(5-6), 541-557.
  • Liou, P. Y. (2021). Students’ attitudes toward science and science achievement: An analysis of the differential effects of science instructional practices. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 58(3), 310-334.
  • Liou, P.-Y. (2014). Examining the big-fish-little-pond effect on students’ self-concept of learning science in Taiwan based on the TIMSS databases. International Journal of Science Education, 36(12), 2009-2028.
  • Liou, P.-Y., Wang, C.-L., Lin, J. J. H., & Areepattamannil, S. (2020). Assessing students’ motivational beliefs about learning science across grade level and gender. Journal of Experimental Education, 89(4), 605-624.
  • Lorsbach, A. (2006). The learning cycle as a tool for planning science instruction. IIIinois State University.
  • Mansour, N., & Al-Shamrani, S. (2015). Science education in the Arab Gulf states: Visions, sociocultural contexts and challenges. Springer.
  • National Research Council (NRC). (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. The National Academies Press.
  • Nonye, A., & Nwosu, B. O. (2011). Effects of instructional scaffolding on the achievement of male and female students in financial accounting in secondary schools in abakaliki urban of Ebonyi state, Nigeria. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 3(2), 66-70.
  • Obeikan for Research and Development. (2010). Project of mathematics and natural sciences.
  • Olatoye, R. A., Aderogba, A. A., & Aanu, E. M. (2011). Effect of co-operative and individualized teaching methods on senior secondary school students’ achievement in organic chemistry. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 12(2), 310-319.
  • Osborne, J., Simon, S., & Collins, S. (2003). Attitudes towards science: A review of the literature and its implications. International Journal of Science Education, 25, 1049-1079.
  • Pallant, J. F. (2000). Development and validation of a scale to measure perceived control of internal states. Journal of Personality Assessment, 75(2), 308-337.
  • Papanastasiou, C., & Papanastasiou, E. C. (2004). Major influences on attitudes toward science. Educational Research and Evaluation, 10(3), 239-257.
  • Pea, R. D. (2004). The Social and Technological Dimensions of Scaffolding and Related Theoretical Concepts for Learning, Education, and Human Activity. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(3), 423-451.
  • Pekrun, R., & Marsh, H. W. (2018). Weiner’s attribution theory: Indispensable – But is it immune to crisis?. Motivation Science, 4(1), 19-20.
  • Pickering, D. J., & Marzano, R. J. (2011). The highly engaged classroom. Marzano Research Laboratory.
  • Renken, M., Otrel-Cass, K., Chiocarriello, A., Girault, I., & Peffer, M. (2016). Scaffolding science learning: Promoting disciplinary knowledge, science process skills, and epistemic processes. In Simulations as scaffolds in science education (pp. 23-28). Springer.
  • Rosemond, D. G. (2006). Acquisition of scientific attitudes and its relevance to science educators [Paper presentation]. Median Seminar of Faculty of Sciences.
  • Saif, A., & Asiri, A. (2017). Attitudes of elementary schools students in Najran District towards science. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(27), 231-238.
  • Sakariyau, A. O., Taiwo, M. O., & Ajagbe, O. W. (2016). An investigation on secondary school students’ attitude towards science in Ogun State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(28), 125-128.
  • Samuels, P., & Gilchrist, M. (2014). Paired samples t-test.
  • Sekaran, U. (2003). Research methods for business: A skill-building approach (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
  • Senemoglu, N. (2018). Development, learning and teaching: From theory to practice (25th ed.). Memoir Publishing.
  • Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
  • Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. (2019). Using multivariate statistics (7th ed.). Pearson Education.
  • Tayeb, Y. A., Abd Aziz, M. S., Ismail, K., & Khan, A. B. M. A. (2014). The washback effect of the general secondary English examination (GSEE) on teaching and learning. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 14(3), 83.
  • Thomas, R., Koballa, J., & Crawley, F. (1985). The influence of attitude on science teaching and learning. School Science and Mathematics, 85(3), 222-232.
  • Ugulu, I. (2015). Development and validation of an instrument for assessing attitudes of high school students about recycling. Environmental Education Research, 21(6), 916- 942.
  • Ugulu, I. (2020). Gifted students’ attitudes towards science. International Journal of Educational Science, 28(1-3), 7-14.
  • Ural, E., & Gençoğlan, D. M. (2020). The effect of argumentation-based science teaching approach on 8th graders’ learning in the subject of acids-bases, their attitudes towards science class and scientific process skills. Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 16(1), e02207.
  • Van de Pol, J., Mercer, N., & Volman, M. (2019). Scaffolding student understanding in small-group work: Students’ uptake of teacher support in subsequent small-group interaction. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 28(2), 206-239.
  • Van de Pol, J., Volman, M., & Beishuizen, J. (2010). Scaffolding in teacher–student interaction: A decade of research. Educational Psychology Review, 22(3), 271-296.
  • White, E. L., & Harrison, T. G. (2012). UK School Students’ Attitudes towards Science and Potential Science-Based Careers. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 5(4), 1-10.
  • Yee, M. H., Yunos, J., Othman, W., Hassan, R., Tee, T. K., & Mohaffyza, M. (2015). Disparity of Learning Styles and Higher Order Thinking Skills among Technical Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 204, 143-152.
  • Yunus, F. W., & Ali, Z. M. (2013). Attitude towards learning chemistry among secondary school students in Malaysia. Journal of Asian Behavioural Attitude, 3(11), 1-12.