When It’s More Difficult, I Just Cram More! An Exploratory Interview Study on Students’ Mindsets in Physics

Verena Spatz 1 * , Laura Goldhorn 2
More Detail
1 Didaktik der Physik, Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, GERMANY
2 Institut für Didaktik der Physik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, GERMANY
* Corresponding Author
EUR J SCI MATH ED, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp. 92-109. https://doi.org/10.30935/scimath/10948
OPEN ACCESS   214 Views   116 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)


In the US, Dweck’s research has shown that learners’ beliefs about their own capability are crucial for the learning success of children and adolescents. Two ends of this spectrum can be identified: learners who believe that they need an innate talent have a so-called fixed mindset. When difficulties arise, students with a fixed mindset typically do not see any purpose in continuing to try and fail because they believe they lack the necessary talent. On the other hand, learners who believe effort and hard work are key factors to success, have a growth mindset. They typically perceive difficulties as opportunities to improve their skills and therefore, the growth mindset supports learning processes and outcomes.
While there are several surveys on this general concept of mindsets, an examination within the context of physics learning has not yet taken place. For this purpose, an exploratory interview study on students’ mindsets in physics was conducted in a total sample of N = 51 middle school students in Germany and Austria using a standardised interview structure.
The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that the concept of mindsets according to Dweck can be applied to students’ beliefs about learning physics, although a majority of 60 % of the students appear to be classified best as a hybrid between the fixed and the growth mindset.


Spatz, V., & Goldhorn, L. (2021). When It’s More Difficult, I Just Cram More! An Exploratory Interview Study on Students’ Mindsets in Physics. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9(3), 92-109. https://doi.org/10.30935/scimath/10948


  • Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96(2), 358-372. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.96.2.358
  • Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87(1), 49-74. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.87.1.49
  • Aguilar, L., Walton, G., & Wieman, C. (2014). Psychological Insights for Improved Physics Teaching. Physics Today, 67(5), 43-49. https://doi.org/10.1063/PT.3.2383
  • Anderton R., Hine, G., & Joyce, C. (2017). Secondary School Mathematics and Science Matters: Academic Performance for Secondary Students Transitioning into University Allied Health and Science Courses. International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, 25(1), 34-47.
  • Ardura, D., & Pérez-Bitrián, A. (2019). Motivational Pathways towards Academic Achievement in Physics & Chemistry: A Comparison between Students who Opt out and those who Persist. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 20(3), 618-632. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9RP00073A
  • Aronson, J., Fried, C. B., & Good, C. (2002). Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 113-125. https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1491
  • Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit Theories of Intelligence Predict Achievement Across an Adolescent Transition: A Longitudinal Study and an Intervention. Child Development, 78(1), 246-263. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.00995.x
  • Breker, T. (2016). Fähigkeitsselbstkonzept, Selbstwirksamkeit & Mindset - Wie können Lehrkräfte Erkenntnisse aus der Sozial-Kognitiven-Psychologie nutzen, um die Potenzialentfaltung von Schülerinnen und Schülern zu fördern? [Ability Self-Concept, Self-Efficacy & Mindset - How Can Teachers Use Findings from Social Cognitive Psychology to Promote the Development of Potential in Students?] [Doctoral thesis, Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt]. https://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-euv/frontdoor/index/index/docId/209
  • Broda, M., Yun, J., Schneider, B., Yeager, D. S., Walton, G. M., & Diemer, M. (2018). Reducing Inequality in Academic Success for Incoming College Students: A Randomized Trial of Growth Mindset and Belonging Interventions. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 11(3), 317-338. https://doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2018.1429037
  • Broome, P. (1998) Implizite Begabungstheorien und erlernte Hilflosigkeit [Implicit Theories of Talent and Learned Helplessness]. Peter Lang.
  • Brück, J. (2018). “Physik muss man nicht nur lernen, sondern auch verstehen!” - Fachspezifische Mindsets von Schülerinnen und Schülern. [You don’t just Have to Learn Physics, You also Have to Understand It! “- Subject-specific mindsets of students] [Unpublished Thesis, TU Darmstadt].
  • Buehl, M. M., Alexander, P. A., & Murphy, P. K. (2002). Beliefs about Schooled Knowledge: Domain Specific or Domain General? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 415-449. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.2001.1103
  • Burgasser, A. J. (2019). Why I teach Growth Mindset. Nature Astronomy, 3, 1038-1040. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-019-0940-7
  • Cimpian, A., Arce, H.-M. C., Markman, E. M., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Subtle Linguistic Cues Affect Children’s Motivation. Psychological Science, 18(4), 314-316. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01896.x
  • Cook, D. A., Castillo, R. M., Gas, B., & Artino, A. R. (2017). Measuring Achievement Goal Motivation, Mindsets and Cognitive Load: Validation of three Instruments’ Scores. Medical Education, 51(10), 1061-1074. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13405
  • Costa, A. & Faria, L. (2018). Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 829. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00829
  • Dar-Nimrod, I., & Heine, S. J. (2006). Exposure to Scientific Theories Affects Women’s Math Performance. Science, 314(5798), 435-435. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1131100
  • De Castella, K., & Byrne, D. (2015). My Intelligence May Be More Malleable Than Yours: The Revised Implicit Theories of Intelligence (Self-theory) Scale Is a Better Predictor of Achievement, Motivation, and Student Disengagement. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 30(3), 245-267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-015-0244-y
  • DeBacker, T. K., Heddy, B. C., Kershen, J. L., Crowson, H. M., Looney, K., & Goldman, J. A. (2018). Effects of a One-Shot Growth Mindset Intervention on Beliefs about Intelligence and Achievement Goals. Educational Psychology, 38(6), 711-733. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2018.1426833
  • Degol, J. L., Wang, M.-T., Zhang, Y., & Allerton, J. (2018). Do Growth Mindsets in Math Benefit Females? Identifying Pathways between Gender, Mindset, and Motivation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(5), 976-990. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s10964-017-0739-8
  • Döring, N., & Bortz, J. (2016). Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation in den Sozial- und Humanwissenschaften [Research Methods and Evaluation in the Social and Human Sciences]. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41089-5
  • Dweck, C. (2008). Mindsets and Math/Science Achievement. Carnegie Corporation of New York, Institute for Advanced Study, Commission on Mathematics and Science Education. https://www.growthmindsetmaths.com/uploads/2/3/7/7/23776169/
  • mindset_and_math_science_achievement_-_nov_2013.pdf
  • Dweck, C. S. & Molden, D. C. (2005). Self Theories: Their Impact on Competence Motivation and Acquisition. In A. J. Elliot and C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of Competence and Motivation (pp. 122-140). The Guilford Press.
  • Dweck, C. S. (1999). Essays in Social Psychology. Self-theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development. Psychology Press.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new Psychology of Success. Random House.
  • Dweck, C. S. and Leggett, E. L. (1988). A Social-Cognitive Approach to Motivation and Personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256-273. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256
  • Dweck, C. S., Davidson, W., Nelson, S., & Enna, B. (1978). Sex Differences in Learned Helplessness: II. The Contingencies of Evaluative Feedback in the Classroom and III. An Experimental Analysis. Developmental Psychology, 14(3), 268-276. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.14.3.268
  • Fink A., Cahill, M. J., McDaniel, M. A., Hoffman, A., & Frey, R. F. (2018). Improving General Chemistry Performance through a Growth Mindset Intervention: Selective Effects on Underrepresented Minorities. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 19, 783-806. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7RP00244K
  • Goldhorn, L. (2017). Mindsets von Schülerinnen und Schülern im Fach Physik — Eine Interviewstudie [Students’ Mindsets in the Subject of Physics - An Interview Study] [Unpublished Thesis, TU Darmstadt].
  • Goldhorn, L., Wilhelm, T., Spatz, V., & Rehberg, J. (2020). Fixed und Growth Mindset: Selbstbilder von Schüler*innen in Physik [Fixed and Growth Mindsets: Self-Images of Students in Physics] PhyDid B - Didaktik der Physik - Beiträge zur DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 187-191. http://www.phydid.de/index.php/phydid-b/article/view/1030/1126
  • Gollwitzer, P. M. (1990). Action Phases and Mindsets. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior (pp. 53-92). Guilford Press.
  • González, A., Fernández, M. V. C., & Paoloni, P. V. (2017). Hope and Anxiety in Physics Class: Exploring their Motivational Antecedents and Influence on Metacognition and Performance. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54(5), 558-585. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21377
  • Good, C., Aronson, J., & Inzlicht, M. (2003). Improving Adolescents’ Standardized Test Performance: An Intervention to Reduce the Effects of Stereotype Threat. Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 645-662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2003.09.002
  • Grant, H., & Dweck, C. S. (2003). Clarifying Achievement Goals and Their Impact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 541-553. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.3.541
  • Gunderson, E. A., Gripshover, S. J., Romero, C., Dweck, C. S., Goldin-Meadow, S., & Levine, S. C. (2013). Parent Praise to 1- to 3-Year-Olds Predicts Children’s Motivational Frameworks 5 Years Later. Child Development, 84(5), 1526-1541. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/cdev.12064
  • Gungor, A., Eryılmaz, A., & Fakıoglu, T. (2007). The Relationship of Freshmen’s Physics Achievement and their Related Affective Characteristics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44. 1036-1056. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20200
  • Hake, R. R. (2002). Relationship of Individual Student Normalized Learning Gains in Mechanics with Gender, High-School Physics, and Pretest Scores on Mathematics and Spatial Visualization. Physics Education Research Conference, 8(1), 1-14.
  • Halloun, I. (2001). Student Views about Science: A comparative Survey. Phoenix Series/Educational Research Center, Lebanese University, Beirut.
  • Hammer, D. (2000) Student Resources for Learning Introductory Physics. American Journal of Physics, 68(1), 52-59. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.19520
  • Hazari, Z., Tai, R. H., & Sadler, P. M. (2007). Gender Differences in Introductory University Physics Performance: The Influence of High School Physics Preparation and Affective Factors. Science Education, 91(6), 847-876. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20223.
  • Hidi, S., Renninger, A., & Krapp, A. (2004). Interest, a Motivational Variable that Combines Affective and Cognitive Functioning. In D. Y. Dai & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Motivation, Emotion, and Cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (2016). The Development of Epistemological Theories. Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning. Review of Educational Research, 67(1), 88-140. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543067001088
  • Holsti, O. R. (1969). Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Addison-Wesley.
  • Hong, Y., Chiu, C., Dweck, C. S., Lin, D. M.-S., & Wan, W. (1999). Implicit Theories, Attributions, and Coping: A Meaning System Approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(3), 588-599. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.3.588
  • Kamins, M. L., & Dweck, C. S. (1999). Person Versus Process Praise and Criticism: Implications for Contingent Self-Worth and Coping. Developmental Psychology, 35(3), 835-847. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.35.3.835
  • Krapp, A. (1992). Interesse, Lernen und Leistung. Neue Forschungsansätze in der Pädagogischen Psychologie. [Interest, Learning and Achievement. New Research Approaches in Educational Psychology.] Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 38(5), 747-770.
  • Krüger, D., Parchmann, I., & Schecker, H. (Eds.) (2014). Methoden in der naturwissenschaftsdidaktischen Forschung [Methods in Scientific Didactic Research]. Springer Spektrum.
  • Laukenmann, M., Bleicher, M., Fuß, S., Gläser-Zikuda, M., Mayring P., & von Rhöneck, C. (2003). An Investigation of the Influence of Emotional Factors on Learning in Physics Instruction. International Journal of Science Education, 25(4), 489-507. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690210163233
  • Lee, Y.-H., Heeter, C., Magerko, B., & Medler, B. (2012). Gaming Mindsets: Implicit Theories in Serious Game Learning. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(4), 190-194. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2011.0328
  • Leslie, S.-J., Cimpian, A., Meyer, M., & Freeland, E. (2015). Expectations of Brilliance Underlie Gender Distributions Across Academic Disciplines. Science, 347(6219), 262-265. https://doi.org/ 10.1126/science.1261375
  • Lisberg, A., & Woods, B. (2018). Mentorship, Mindset and Learning Strategies: An Integrative Approach to Increasing Underrepresented Minority Student Retention in a STEM Undergraduate Program. Journal of STEM Education, 19, 3. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/184625/
  • Lising L., & Elby A. (2005). The Impact of Epistemology on Learning: A Case Study from Introductory Physics, American Journal of Physics, 73(4), 372-382. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.1848115
  • Lou, N. M., & Noels, K. A. (2017). Measuring Language Mindsets and Modelling their Relations with Goal Orientations and Emotional and Behavioral Responses in Failure Situations. Modern Language Journal, 101(1), 214-243. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12380
  • Mangels, J. A., Butterfield, B., Lamb, J., Good, C., & Dweck, C. S. (2006). Why do Beliefs about Intelligence Influence Learning Success? A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Model. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1(2), 75-86. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsl013
  • Marsh, H. W. (1990). The Structure of Academic Self-Concept - The Marsh/Shavelson Model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 623-636. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.82.4.623
  • Marsh, H. W., & Martin, A. J. (2011). Academic Self-Concept and Academic Achievement: Relations and Causal Ordering. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(1), 59-77. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709910X503501
  • Marshman, E., Kalender, Z. Y., Schunn, C., Nokes-Malach, T., & Singh, C. (2017). A Longitudinal Analysis of Students’ Motivational Characteristics in Introductory Physics Courses: Gender Differences. Canadian Journal of Physics, 96(4), 391-405. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjp-2017-0185
  • May, D. B., & Etkina, E. (2002), College Physics Students’ Epistemological Self-Reflection and its Relationship to Conceptual Learning. American Journal of Physics, 70(12), 1249. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.1503377
  • Mayring, P. (2015). Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse: Grundlagen und Techniken [Qualitative Content Analysis: Basics and Techniques]. Beltz Verlag.
  • McCabe, J. A., Kane-Gerard, S., & Friedman-Wheeler, D. G. (2020). Examining the Utility of Growth-Mindset Interventions in Undergraduates: A Longitudinal Study of Retention and Academic Success in a First-Year Cohort. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 6(2), 132-146. https://doi.org/10.1037/tps0000228.
  • Mueller, C. M., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Praise for Intelligence Can Undermine Children’s Motivation and Performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 33-52. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.1.33
  • Muis, K. R., Bendixen, L. D., & Haerle, F. C. (2006). Domain-Generality and Domain-Specificity in Personal Epistemology Research: Philosophical and Empirical Reflections in the Development of a Theoretical Framework. Educational Psychology Review, 18(1), 3-54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-006-9003-6
  • Nakakoji, Y., & Wilson, R. (2014). Maths is a Strong Predictor of STEM Attainment in First-Year University. Proceedings of the Australian Conference on Science and Mathematics Education (pp. 149-155), University of Sydney. https://openjournals.library.sydney.edu.au/index.php/IISME/article/view/7741/8077
  • O’Keefe, P. A., Dweck, C. S., & Walton, G. M. (2018). Implicit Theories of Interest: Finding your Passion or Developing it? Psychological Science, 29(10), 1653-1664. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797618780643.
  • Ortiz Alvarado, N. B., Rodríguez Ontiveros, M., & Ayala Gaytán, E. A. (2019). Do Mindsets Shape Students’ Well-Being and Performance? The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 153(8), 843-859. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2019.1631141
  • Perkins, K., & Gratny, M. (2010). Who Becomes a Physics Major? A Long-Term Longitudinal Study Examining the Roles of Pre-College Beliefs about Physics and Learning Physics, Interest, and Academic Achievement. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1289, 253-256. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3515214
  • Potvin, P., & Hasni, A. (2014). Interest, Motivation and Attitude towards Science and Technology at K-12 levels: A Systematic Review of 12 years of Educational Research. Studies in Science Education, 50(1), 85-129. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057267.2014.881626
  • Rice University (2018, March 29). Nobel laureate Carl Wieman: The Right Question Primes Students for Learning [Press release]. https://news.rice.edu/2018/03/29/nobel-laureate-carl-wieman-the-right-question-primes-students-for-learning
  • Salehi, S., Burkholder, E., Lepapage, G. P., Pollock, S., & Wieman, C. (2019). Demographic Gaps or Preparation Gaps? The Large Impact of Incoming Preparation on Performance of Students in Introductory Physics. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 15(2), 020114. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.15.020114
  • Schiefele, U., & Wild, K. P. (1994). Lernstrategien im Studium: Ergebnisse zur Faktorenstruktur und Reliabilität eines neuen Fragebogens [Learning Strategies during Studies: Results on the Factor Structure and Reliability of a New Questionnaire]. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 15(4), 185-200.
  • Schmidt, F. T. C., Fleckenstein, J., Retelsdorf, J., Eskreis-Winkler, L., & Möller, J. (2019). Measuring grit: A German Validation and a Domain-Specific Approach to Grit. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35(3), 436-447. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000407
  • Schwamberger, T. M. (2017). Mindsets von Schülerinnen und Schülern im Unterrichtsfach Physik - eine Interviewstudie [Students’ Mindsets in the School-Subject of Physics - An Interview Study] [Unpublished Thesis, University of Vienna].
  • Scott, M. J., & Ghinea, G. (2014). On the Domain-Specificity of Mindsets: The Relationship between Aptitude Beliefs and Programming Practice. IEEE Transactions on Education, 57(3), 169-174. https://doi.org/10.1109/TE.2013.2288700
  • Seligman, M. E., Abramson, L.Y., Semmel, A., & von Baeyer, C. (1979). Depressive Attributional Style. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88(3), 242-247. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.88.3.242
  • Sisk, V. F., Burgoyne, A. P., Sun, J., Butler, J. L., & Macnamara, B. N. (2018). To What Extent and Under Which Circumstances Are Growth Mind-Sets Important to Academic Achievement? Two Meta-Analyses. Psychological Science, 29(4), 549-571. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797617739704
  • Sriram, R. (2013). Rethinking Intelligence: The Role of Mindset in Promoting Success for Academically High-Risk Students. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 15(4), 515-536. https://doi.org/10.2190/CS.15.4.c
  • Stathopoulou, C., & Vosniadou, S. (2007). Exploring the Relationship between Physics-Related Epistemological Beliefs and Physics Understanding. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32(3), 255-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2005.12.002
  • Weiner, B. (1974). Achievement motivation and attribution theory. General Learning Press.
  • Xu, K., Koorn, P., De Koning, B., Skuballa, I., Lin, L., Henderikx, M., Marsh, H., Sweller, J., & Paas, F. (2020). A Growth Mindset Lowers Perceived Cognitive Load and Improves Learning: Integrating Motivation to Cognitive Load. Journal of Educational Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000631
  • Yeager D. S., & Walton, G. M. (2011). Social-Psychological Interventions in Education: They’re Not Magic. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 267-301. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654311405999
  • Yeager, D. S., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindsets that Promote Resilience: When Students Believe that Personal Characteristics Can Be Developed. Educational Psychologist, 47(4), 302-314. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2012.722805
  • Yeager, D. S., Hanselman, P., Walton, G. M., Murray, J. S., Crosnoe, R., Muller, C., Tipton, E., Schneider, B., Hulleman, C. S., Hinojosa, C. P., Paunesku, D., Romero, C., Flint, K., Roberts, A., Trott, J., Iachan, R., Buontempo, J., Man Yang, S., Carvalho, C. M., … Dweck, C. S. (2019). A National Experiment Reveals where a Growth Mindset Improves Achievement. Nature, 573, 364-369. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1466-y
  • Yeager, D. S., Romero, C., Paunesku, D., Hulleman, C. S., Schneider, B., Hinojosa, C., Lee, H. Y., O’Brien, J., Flint, K., Roberts, A., Trott, J., Greene, D., Walton, G. M., & Dweck, C. S. (2016). Using Design Thinking to Improve Psychological Interventions: The Case of the Growth Mindset during the Transition to High School. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(3), 374-391. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000098
  • Yeager, D. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2013). An Implicit Theories of Personality Intervention Reduces Adolescent Aggression in Response to Victimization and Exclusion. Child Development, 84(3), 970-988. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12003
  • Zeeb, H., Ostertag, J., & Renkl, A. (2020). Towards a Growth Mindset Culture in the Classroom: Implementation of a Lesson-Integrated Mindset Training. Education Research International, 2020, 8067619. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8067619
  • Zhu, S., Zhuang, Y., & Cheung, S.-H. (2020). Domain Specificity or Generality: Assessing the Chinese Implicit Theories Scale of Six Fundamental Psychological Attributes. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 142. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00142